Cancer immunotherapy responses in the clinic: T cell revival as predictor

In lung cancer patients who were taking immunotherapy drugs, testing for revived immune cells in their blood partially predicted whether their tumors would shrink. The results were published online by PNAS.

This finding comes from a small study of 29 patients, who were being treated at Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University with drugs blocking the PD-1 pathway, also known as checkpoint inhibitors.

The study supports a straightforward idea: if tumor-specific CD8 T cells appear to respond to the drug (nivolumab, pembrolizumab or atezolizumab), that’s a good sign. This avenue of investigation may also help researchers figure out why some patients do not benefit from checkpoint inhibitor drugs, and how to combine those drugs with other treatments to increase response rates.

“We hypothesize that re-activated CD8 T cells first proliferate in the lymph nodes, then transition through the blood and migrate to the inflamed tissue,” says Rafi Ahmed, PhD, director of the Vaccine Center and a Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar. “We believe some of the activated T cells in patients’ blood may be on their way to the tumor.” Dr. Ahmed is a faculty member in the IMP and MMG programs.

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